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Nasir-Ud-Din Muhammad was born in Kabul, Afghanistan, on March 6, 1508. He has known the regnal name, Humayun, and was the Mughal empire’s second emperor. He was more of an adventurer than an empire consolidator. His domain included modern-day Afghanistan, Pakistan, Northern India, and Bangladesh. He ruled from 1530 to 1540 and then returned to the throne in 1555–1556.

As with his father, Babur, he lost his empire early but recovered it with the assistance of the Safavid dynasty of Persia. The Mughal Empire stretched almost one million square kilometers at the time of his death in 1556.

The dynasty’s Central Asian roots completely obscured Persian art, architecture, language, and literature. Numerous stone scalp and hundreds of Persian manuscripts dating from the reign of Humayun are for India.

Subsequently, Humayun extended the Empire even more in a short period, leaving a sizable legacy for his son, Akbar.

Humayun Early Life

While Humayun is fruitful Agra against Sher Shah, the Empire’s subsequent city. Gaur, the seat of the vilayat of Bengal, is decimates. he is powers delay while endeavoring to catch Chunar, a stronghold of Sher Shah’s child, to safeguard his soldiers from a back attack. The grain stores at Gauri, the domain’s greatest, were exhaust, and Humayun showed up to discover bodies covering the streets. Bengal’s colossal wealth channel and shipped toward the East, giving Sher Shah a sizable conflict reserve.

Beliefs in Superstition

He was a devout believer in superstition, showing an interest in horoscopes and the psychic. Upon assuming the title of Padishah (Emperor), he immediately started reorganizing the government according to religiously established ideas. He classified public offices into four different categories to correspond to the four components.

Earth was in charge of agriculture and agricultural sciences; Fire was in charge of the military; Water was in charge of canals and waterways, and Air seemed to be in control of everything else. He arranged daily schedules and clothing around the planets’ motions. He would not enter a home with left foot front, and anybody who did would ask to leave and re-enter.

His servant, Jauhar, recounts in the Tadhkirat al-Waqiat that he says to fire arrows. the sky marks with either own or the Shah of Persia’s name and interprets their landing as a sign of which of them. it would become more powerful.

Luxurious Habits

He drank excessively and consumed Opium pellets before reciting poetry. He despised combat; after capturing a city, he would spend months enjoying himself inside its walls while a bigger conflict raged outside.

Territorial Disadvantage

Babur’s decision to split his empire’s lands between two of his sons was uncommon in India. but it had been a typical Central Asian practice since Genghis time.

Timur split his domains amongst Pir Muhammad, Miran Shah, Khalil Sultan, and Shah Rukh, resulting in inter-family conflict. Humayun’s domains were the least secure after Babur’s death. He had just been in power for four years, and not all umrah (nobles) regarded Humayun as the legitimate king. Indeed, when Babur became sick, some nobles attempted to appoint his brother-in-law, Mahdi Khwaja, as a king. Although this effort failed, it was a precursor to future difficulties.

Early Rule and Difficulties of Humayun

In 1530, he succeeded his father in India Humayun his brother Kamran Mirza, who became a fierce competitor, gains dominion on Kabul and Lahore, the empire’s northernmost provinces. He first assumed the king at the age of 22, demonstrating a lack of experience at his accession to power.


When Humayun assumed the Mughal Empire’s throne, many of his brothers rose out against him. Khalil Mirza (1509–1530), another brother, backed Humayun but murder. The emperor built a mausoleum for his brother in 1538, but it does not complete the time Humayun fled to Persia. Sher Shah demolishes the building, and it remained abandoned after He reconstruction.

He faced stiff competition for his territories from two major rivals: Sultan Bahadur of Gujarat to the southwest and Sher Shah Suri to the east. Humayun’s first expedition directed against Sher Shah Suri. Humayun is force to leave this assault halfway through to focus on Gujarat when a threat from Ahmed Shah had to be address. Humayun triumphed, annexing Gujarat, Malwa, Champaner, and Mandu’s magnificent fort.

Ottoman Empire

Bahadur and Khan expanded their authority throughout the first five years of Humayun’s reign, but Sultan experienced pressure in the east From time to time battles with the Portuguese.

While the Mughals got guns via the Ottoman Empire, Bahadur’s Gujarat gained them through a series of contacts with the Portuguese, which allowed the Portuguese to establish a strategic presence in northwestern India.

Humayun is informing in 1535 that the Sultan of Gujarat was plotting an attack on the Mughal domains with the assistance of the Portuguese. Humayun assembled an army and marched against Bahadur. Within a month, he had conquered Mandu and Champaner forts. However, rather than continuing the war, Humayun halted it and consolidated his newly acquired territories. Meanwhile, Sultan Bahadur fled and sought shelter with the Portuguese.

Events leading to the Fall of Humayun

He inherited the promise of empire rather than the reality of it since the Mughal triumphs at Panipat (1526), Khan (1527), and the Ghaghara (1528) are only repressed but did not reconcile the Afghans and Rajputs to Mughal rule (1529).

B- Shah of Gujarat, supported by Afghan and Mughal émigrés, oppose the Mughals in Rajasthan, and despite He occupation of Gujarat in 1535, the threat in Gujarat last until Bahadur died in 1537. Meanwhile, Sher Shah of Sr, an Afghan soldier of fortune, had cemented his authority in Bihar and Bengal. He defeated Humayun in 1539 at Chausa and again in 1540 at Kannauj, driving him from India.

Sher Shah Suri’s involvement

Sher Shah Suri detected a chance to assume responsibility for Agra from the Mughals soon after Humayun walked on Gujarat. He began gathering his military with the desire for dispatching a quick and definitive attack on the Mughal capital. Humayun promptly walk his officers back to Agra after hearing this terrifying news, empowering Bahadur to handily recover the grounds Humayun had quite recently won. In any case, Bahadur kills in February 1537 after a bomb endeavor to steal the Portuguese emissary result in a firefight that the Sultan lost.


conflict reserve

While Humayun was effective in protecting Agra against Sher Shah, the Empire’s subsequent city, Gaur, the seat of the vilayat of Bengal, annihilate. Hu’s powers delay while endeavoring to catch Chunar, a fortification held by Sher Shah’s child, to safeguard his soldiers from a back attack. The grain reserves at Gauri, the domain’s greatest, were drains, and Humayun showed up to discover bodies covering the streets. Bengal’s tremendous wealth channel and shipped toward the East, furnishing Sher Shah with a sizable conflict reserve.

Blunder By Humayun

Sher Shah went to the east, but Humayun remained: he “locked himself up in his Harem for a long period and indulged in every sort of luxury.” Hindal, Humayun’s 19-year-old brother, promised to assist him in this fight and defend the rear, but he retreated to Agra, where he declared himself acting emperor. When Humayun dispatch Sheikh Buhlul, the great Mufti, to reason with him, the Sheikh was assassinate. To further incite insurrection, Hindal order that the major mosque’s Khutba, or speech, encircled.


Kamran Mirza, Humayun’s other brother, marched from his Punjab lands purportedly to assist Humayun. His return home, however, is motivate by treachery, as planned to lay a claim on Humayun’s seemingly crumbling kingdom. He negotiated a contract with Hindal in which his brother agreed to abstain from any acts of treachery in exchange for a part in the new kingdom that Kamran would establish after Humayun’s deposition.

Battle of Chausa 

Sher Shah and Humayun fought at the Battle of Chausa on the banks of the Ganges near Buxar in June 1539. This was going to be an entrenched war in which both sides would spend considerable time digging themselves in. The artillery, the bulk of the Mughal force, and Humayun chose to engage in diplomacy via Muhammad Aziz. Humayun consented to give Sher Shah authority over Bengal and Bihar,peror, Humayun, and so falling short of full dominion. Additionally, the two monarchs negotiated a deal to preserve face: Humayun’s soldiers would attack Sher Shah’s forces, which would then withdraw in feigned terror. Thus, allegedly, the honor is to fulfill.

Sher Shah’s Dishonor of Agreement and Advances 

Following the charge of the Army of Humayun and the agreed-upon withdrawal of Sher Shah’s forces, the Mughal troops relaxed their defensive preparations and withdrew to their entrenchments without maintaining a sufficient guard. Sher Shah reneged on his previous promise after seeing the Mughals’ weakness.

That night, his army attacked the Mughal camp, and upon finding the Mughal soldiers unprepared and the majority sleeping, advanced and slaughtered the majority. The monarch returned to Agra peacefully after swimming over the Ganges in an air-filled “water skin.” Shams al-Din Muhammad helped Humayun in crossing the Ganges.

Series of Events 

In Agra 

When Humayun came to Agra, he discovered the presence of all three of his brothers. Humayun forgave his brothers for conspiring against him once again and even forgave Hindal for his open treachery. Sher Shah was gradually approaching Agra with his troops traveling at a slow pace. This was a grave danger to the whole family, but Humayun and Kamran disagreed on the best course of action. Kamran retreated when Humayun declined to launch an immediate attack on the oncoming enemy, preferring instead to expand his army in his name.

Another Defeat

When Kamran retreated to Lahore, Humayun marched 200 kilometers (120 miles) east of Agra to face Sher Shah in the battle of Kannauj on 17 May 1540. Humayun thrashed severely. He fled to Agra, where he followed Sher Shah, and then through Delhi to Lahore. Sher Shah’s establishment of the brief Sur Empire, with Delhi as its capital, culminated in Humayun’s 15-year exile in the court of Shah Tahmasp I.

Humayun in Lahore

The four brothers reunite in Lahore, but they constantly tell that Sher Shah was closing in on them. When Humayun arrived at Sirhind, he sent an envoy to deliver the news “I have bequeathed to you the whole of Hindustan [i.e. the territories east of Punjab that include the majority of the Ganges Valley]. Leave Lahore Sirhind to act as a facto border between you and me.” Sher Shah, on the other hand, said “I have departed from Kabul. Kabul was the capital of Humayun’s brother Kamran’s kingdom.

Conspiracy within the Blood

Kamran contacted Sher Shah and suggested against his brother and joining Sher Shah in exchange for the majority of Punjab. Sher Shah rejected his assistance, thinkings it was unnecessary. He encouraged him to make an example of Kamran by murdering him. Humayun declined, citing his father’s last words, “Do nothing against your brothers, even if they deserve it.”

Further Retreat

When Hindu king Rao Maldeo Rathore joined with Sher Shah Suri against the Mughal Empire, His army rode out into and over the Thar Desert. Humayun requested that his brothers accompany him when he retreated to Sindh.

While Hindal Mirza, who had earlier rebelled, stayed faithful and commanded to join his brothers in Kandahar. Kamran Mirza and Askari Mirza, on the other hand, chose to flee to the relative tranquillity of Kabul. This was to be the family’s last schism.

Humayun traveled to Sindh with the expectation of receiving assistance from the Emir of Sindh, Hussein Umrani, whom he appointed. Additionally, his wife Hamida was a Sindh native; she was the daughter of a prominent family of Persian ancestry that had a long history in Sindh. Humayun had to interrupt his trip to the Emir’s court since his pregnant wife Hamida was unable to continue. Humayun sought shelter with Amarkot’s Hindu monarch.

Humayun’s birth date

Rana Prasad Rao of Amarkot graciously accepted Humayun and housed the refugees for many months. On 15 October 1542, a Hindu Rajput lord, Hamida Bano, Humayun’s wife, gave birth to the future Emperor Akbar. Humayun’s birth date is firmly known since he contacts astronomers to use the astrolabe and determine the planets’ positions. The baby was the long-awaited heir apparent to Humayun, 34, and the fulfillment of many prayers. his entourage departed Amarkot for Sindh shortly after the birth, leaving Akbar behind, who was unprepared for the arduous trip ahead in his infancy. Askari Mirza subsequently adopted him.

welcome Humayun’s

Emir Hussein Umrani, Sindh’s ruler, welcomed Humayun’s arrival and pledged allegiance to him, just as he had pledged allegiance to Babur against the rebellious Arghuns. While in Sindh, Humayun collected horses and weaponry and established new connections that aided in the reconquest of lost areas. He collected hundreds of Sindhi and Baloch tribesmen with his Mughals Kabul, gathering thousands as Humayun proclaimed himself a Timurid successor to Babur, the first Mughal Emperor.

In Kabul

On 11 July 1543, Humayun embarked from Sindh with 300 camels and 2000 tonnes of food, intending to reclaim the Mughal Empire and destroy the Suri dynasty. The Leghari, Magsi, Rind, and many other tribes had pledged loyalty to Humayun.

Askari Mirza

Hindi Mirza is put under house prison in Kabul Kamran Mirza’s realm after refuse to have the Khutba read in Kamran’s name. Askari Mirza, his other brother, is now instructing to raise an army and march on Humayun.

When Humayun learned of the coming enemy army. he chose to flee rather than face them.

he is left behind at a camp near Kandhar since Dec is too cold and hazardous for the 14-month child to accompany the march into the Hindu Kush mountains. Askari Mirza adopted Akbar, entrusting him to the care of Kamran and Askari Mirza’s wives. The Akbarnama names Sultan Begam as Kamran Mirza’s wife.

He went once again toward Kandahar, his brother Kamran is in power, but got no assistance and was forced to seek shelter with the Shah of Persia.

In Persia harsh circumstances

They endured a tough trip and harsh circumstances along the way. These indignities persisted throughout the month-long journey to Herat, but once there, they were greeted with luxury. They were well fed and clothed. They are providing with luxurious lodgings, and the roads are swept and clean in advance of their arrival.

Admiration of Architecture and Art

Shah Tahmasp, unlike Humayun’s own family, actually welcomed the Mughal and treated him as a royal visitor. Here, Humayun went touring and was taken aback by the Persian artwork and architecture he encountered: most of it is the work of Timurid Sultan Husayn Bayqarah and his ancestor, princess Gauhar Shad; therefore, he was able to appreciate the work of his relations and ancestors up close.

He was exposed to the Persian miniature artists and Kamaleddin Behzad’s work. Humayun is to taken aback by their efforts and asked if they would work for him if he regained Hindustan’s sovereignty:

they accepted, He did not see the Shah until July, almost 6 months after his arrival in Persia, due to the flurry of activity. Following a long trip from the two arrived at Qazvin, where a huge feast and celebrations in honor of the occasion. The two kings’ encounter is portrayed in a renowned wall painting at Esfahan’s Chehel Sotoun Palace.

Conversion From Sunni to Shia

The Shah pushed Humayun to convert from Sunni to Shia Islam, which Humayun did to save his own life and those of several hundred supporters. Although the Mughals first opposed their conversion. They understood that with Tahmasp’s apparent embrace of Shi’ism, he is ultimately willing to give Humayun more real assistance. When Humayun’s brother, Kamran Mirza, offered the Persians Kandahar in return for Humayun, dead or alive, Shah Tahmasp declined.

party for Humayun

Rather than that, the Shah held a party for Humayun, complete with 300 tents, an imperial Persian carpet, 12 musical ensembles, and “every manner of meat.” The Shah declared here that he is using all of this, as well as 12,000 elite cavalries, an assault against his brother Kamran. All Shah Tahmasp requested was that Kandahar be his if Humayun’s troops were successful.

Kandhar and Further Campaign

His stay loyalty to Tahmasp of Iran in 1544, He received military assistance from Shah capture Kandahar (1545) and reclaim Kabul 3-times from his traitorous brother, Kamran, the last time in 1550. As promised, Kandahar is hand to the Shah of Persia, who appointed his newborn son Murad as Viceroy. However, the infant died shortly thereafter, and Humayun considered himself strong enough to take authority.


Humayun is now preparing to seize Kabul, which is now controlled by his brother Kamran Mirza. Finally, there was no siege. Kamran,s leadership was despised, and when the Persian army near the city, hundreds of Kamran soldiers defected, rushing to join bolstering his ranks. Kamran Mirza fled the city and immediately started assembling an army. Hamida and Humayun were reunited with their son Akbar in November 1545, and they celebrated with a large feast. They also hosted a second, bigger feast in the child’s honor after his circumcision. 

Death of Brothers

Hindal Mirza, his youngest brother and formerly the most disloyal of his brothers died fighting for him. At the request of his nobles and advisers, his brother Askari Mirza was chained. He was permitted to do Hajj but died on his way in the desert near Damascus.

Kamran Mirza sought a deal with Islam Shah, Sher Shah’s successor, in 1552, but was caught by a Gakhar. The Gakhars were one of the few tribal tribes who had continuously adhered to their Mughal pledge. Sultan Adam of the Gakhars presented Humayun with Kamran Mirza. Humayun leaned toward forgiving his brother.

Assassinating his brother

He was cautioned, that allowing Kamran Mirza’s repeated acts of betrayal to go unpunished risked inciting revolt among his followers. Thus, rather than assassinating his brother, Humayun had Kamran Mirza blinded, thus putting the latter’s claim to the throne. Humayun dispatched Kamran Mirza on Hajj intending to absolve the brother of his sins. However, Kamran Mirza died in 1557 on the Arabian Peninsula, near Mecca.

Retaking the throne 

Humyuh seized Lahore in February 1555, and after defeating Sikandar, the rebel Afghan ruler of Punjab, in Sir hind, he reclaimed Delhi and Agra in July.


On 24 January 1556, He was descending from his library. he slid several steps and collided with the temple’s rough stone edge. Three days later, he died.

In Mughal architecture, Humayun’s Mausoleum in Delhi magnificent garden is establishing the pattern for the Taj Mahal and many Indian monuments. It is commission Bega Begum, his favorite and most loyal main wife.

Later in life, Akbar commissioned his aunt, Gulbadan Begum, to write a biography of her brother, the Humayun nama (or Humayun-nama, etc.), as well as what she recalled of Babur.


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