Shams-Ud-Din Iltutmish, known as Iltutmish, was born in Central Asia in a Turkish tribe named as Ilbari tribe. He was effectively highly intelligent and handsome from childhood and was loved a lot by his family. However, his brother was negative, so he sold his brother Iltutmish as a slave to a human trafficker named Jamal-Ud-Din. Iltutmish was afterward taken to Delhi by his master and was sold to Qutub-Ud-Din Aibak.
Iltumish become sultan
Qutub-Ud-Din Aibak appointed his slave Iltutmish as a soldier in his army. Having Turkish blood in his vein. He proved himself as a great warrior and proved his bravery on the battlefield. He effectively impressed the high official from Aibak’s army. A commander name Muhammad of Ghur impress by his services. He praised his services in front of king Qutub Ud Din Aibak. After that, Iltutmish gradually goes to promoted due to his brilliance and arduous work in warfare. Under the supervision of Aibak, Iltutmish flourished a lot and achieved higher designation in the army. Just before becoming the emperor of the Delhi sultanate, as appointed as the governor of Badaun. Iltutmish then became the son-in-law of Aibak at Aibak’s request. Due to the sudden death of the Sultan. He fortunately, become the Sultan of Dehli’s Sultanate in 1221, ascending his great mentor and teacher.
When Iltutmish took charge of the Sultanate, the Delhi Sultanate was under huge crisis. His master Aibak left him in a time of great crisis. Which he had to bear in the shape of the threat of war from the Ghaznavid dynasty (to be more specific. Taj Ud Din Yeldoz) and from Nasir Ud Din Kabacha from Uch (Bahawalpur district).
- Yeldon defeated kabocha in war and took control of Lahore and almost every part of Punjab, which made his position extraordinarily strong in this part of the world. At that time,, Iltutmish realized that this was the right time to defeat yeldoz as his power increased. So, he decided to attack Yeldoz’s Army and did so. This decision proved beneficial for Iltutmish . He demolished Yeldoz’s army and cemented his position in the region on stronger terms.
Iltutmish attach to Qubacha’s Army
- Qubacha was one of the biggest rivals and a threat to Iltutmish after Yeldoz. So, to minimize this threat, a war need to remove this threat. So Iltutmish decided to attach to Qubacha’s Army and did so. Taking advantage of Qubacha’s position after his fight with Manga Barni, Iltutmish attacked his army and demolished his army by a huge margin.
- Bengal was a far located province under the Delhi sultanate, but the governor of Bengal became rebellious and declared Bengal an independent state. Which alerted the Sultan, and he ordered the army to march toward Bengal under the command of his son and killed Ghayas Ud Din (governor of Bengal) and made his son, Nasir Ud Din Mahmud, the governor of that state.
- Rajput states after the death of Qutub Ud Din Aibak declared independence on their behalf, including Jalor, Ajmer, Bayana, and many other states. These states started the rebellious movement, but Iltutmish dealt with them in a quiet, efficient manner and took control of all states back.
MONGOL INVASION AND ILTUTMISH’S GREAT DIPLOMACY
The biggest threat to any state or empire around the globe was Mongols, especially Chengiz khan (famous for his brutal nature and destruction). When changes khan headed toward Subcontinent Region, he fought with a state owner named Mangbarni. Mangbarni requested Iltutmish for help and shelter parallelly Chengiz Khan sent a message to Iltutmish not to help Mangbarni in this fight. Iltutmish played the democratic card and decided not to help Mangbarni and made sure to make this point clear in Chengiz khan’s eye. This strategy proved quite successful as Chengiz khan left his sultanate and moved to another region which saved not only his sultanate but also the whole Subcontinent from the cruelty of Chengiz khan.
He revitalized the city of Delhi with the development of mosques and the popular Qutub Minar. He also welcomed researchers, scholars, and craftsmen to Delhi to create both great and modern. Iltutmish prepared a band of good slaves numbering forty, put them in dependable posts, and gave them special administration posts. He has presented new silver and copper currencies which were two fundamental coins of the sultanate. He was strict in his own life and noticed the Islamic rituals with a feeling of regard and dedication. In any case, he was unfair and harsh towards the Hindus. He obliterated some renowned Hindu Temples like the Mahakala Temple of Ujjain and hurt the sentiments of the Hindus. In any case, his deeds for the foundation of Muslim rule in India have made him the originator of the Delhi Sultanate.