Kautilya also remembered as Vishnu Gupta and Chanakya was the ancient teacher, expert of philosophy and economy, and worked as a royal advisor. He was born in 375 BCE in a village named chanaka (currently Asam located in India). All his work and teachings vanished with the end of the Gupta Empire and were discovered again in the 20th century.
He opened his eyes to the Brahman family and received his education at a place in Pakistan called Taxila. He had a vast knowledge of medicine and astrology, and it is believed he was well educated in elements of Greek and Persian learning introduced into India by Zoroastrians…
Chanakya became a counselor and adviser to Chandragupta, founder of the Mauryan empire of northern India, but lived by himself. He was instrumental in helping Chandragupta overthrow the powerful Nanda dynasty at Pataliputra, in the Magadha region and creating one of the greatest empires in this area of the world I.e., the Mauryan empire
Kautilya died in 283 B.C.E during the reign of the Mauryan empire a natural death at a place called Pataliputra currently known as Patna (located in India)
KAUTILYA AND MAURYAN EMPIRE
Kautilya was the advisor/minister in the Kingdom of Chandragupta Maurya during 317 – 293 B.C., He has been considered as perhaps the best advisor of that time and has clarified his perspectives on State, War, Social Structures, Diplomacy, Ethics, Politics, and Statecraft plainly in his book called Artha shastra. The Mauryan Empire was bigger than the later British India which extended from the Indian Ocean to the Himalayas and up to Iran in the West. After Alexander left India, this was the most impressive empire in India and Kautilya was serve who prompted the King.
KAUTILYA VIEWS ON WAR
Kautilya was a custodian of peace within the state or with other states also yet certainly believed in the empowerment of warfare to save or to protect the position and to keep it protected. He believed that having a stronger army is important as it is obligatory for the existence of the state, and it makes the king more prominent and helps him to focus more on other prosperity aspects.
Kautilya believes that a King must achieve these three objectives:
- Have a stronger economy,
- Stronger army and
- Extension of state.
KAUTILYA VIEWS ON JUSTICE
Kautilya believed that for the prosperity of a state, the state must be devoid of internal conflict and the King should be in control of the state. To maintain this internal peace, he believed in a just and realistic rule of law. His definition of a state was one that had power and wealth and hence he put property rights and protection of wealth as one of the important themes in his jurisprudence. In fact, he advocated that one could get rid of corporal punishment by paying off fines. Kautilya also emphasized the importance of human rights on prisoners and war losers should be treated. He exclaimed a deep understanding of criminal and war justice. Surprisingly, for a harsh and war-loving man like Kautilya he shows mercy towards the people defeated in a war and recommends humanity and justice towards them. He thinks that the preservation of the mandala structure of war and peace was especially important.
KAUTILYA VIEW ON DIPLOMACY
Kautilya believed all nations act in their own way on political, economic, and military interests. He thought that foreign policy or diplomacy will be implemented in the interest of the state is served because every state act in a way to maximize the power and interest. He thought that the world was in such a state that a kingdom was either at war or was preparing for war and diplomacy was. He believed that diplomacy is a series of actions taken by a kingdom such that it gains strength and eventually conquers the nation with which diplomatic ties were created. He also believed that treaties should be made in such a way that the King benefits and serves the self-interest of the Kingdom. He did talk about violating treaties and creating dissension between states. In fact, Kautilya can be compared to Bismarck that thought of an extremely complex network of treaties and relationships without any successor in either case.