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Qutbuddin Mubarak Shah

Qutb-Ud-Din Mubarak Shah reigned as the Khilji Dynasty’s third and final ruler. From 1316 until 1320, he governed the Delhi Sultanate.

Qutb-ud-din appointed official to his younger six-year-old sibling, his ruler when he was 18 years old. Qutb-ud-din served as the administration’s weakest leader. In 1320, his assassinated by Khusro Khan, a trusted confidant with whom he had homosexual relations.

He is the latest in a long line of leaders who were instrumental in the demise of the Khilji Dynasty.

Qutbuddin Mubarak Shah Early Life

Mubarak Shah, also known as Mubarak Khan, was the son of Alauddin Khalji and Jhatyapali, Ramachandra of Devagiri’s daughter. After Alauddin’s death on 4 January 1316, the political vacuum left Malik Kafur in command.

He installed Shihabuddin, Alauddin’s 6-year-old son, as a puppet king and acted as regent himself. He buried the Sultan’s body in a mausoleum built by the Sultan himself in front of the Quwwat-ul-Islam Mosque after shedding a few tears.

The next day, he summoned the government’s ministers and nobles and presented them with the late Sultan’s will appointing Shihabuddin Umar to the throne. The essay will discuss the sequence of events that culminated in Mubarak Shah assuming the throne. Mubarak and the other sons of Alauddin forced to kiss Shihabuddin’s feet at his coronation ceremony.

Malik Kafur’s Hunger for the Throne

Malik Kafur dispatched a soldier named Sumbal to blind Khizr Khan in Gwalior on the very first day of his accession to disqualify him from the throne. He presented Sumbal Alauddin with the ring he had taken off the deceased Sultan’s person.

Sumbal arrived in Gwalior and was able to easily locate his victim. As he sat down to lose his sight, tears streamed down the prince’s face.

Shadi Khan is blind at Kaushak-i-Siri on the day Sumbal arrives in Gwalior. Malika-i-Jahan is likewise imprisoning in the fort of Gwalior and stripe of jewels and riches. All of the late Sultan’s other sons, namely Farid Khan, Usman Khan, Abu Bakr, and Muhammad Khan, fell into the tyrant’s clutches.

Later on, Kafur began punishing Alauddin’s family members, whom he saw as a danger to his reign. Mubarak Shah, one of Alauddin’s few adult sons, his imprisoned.

Freeing of Qutbuddin Mubarak Shah and Kafur’s Assassination

After deposing the royal family, Kafur established a feeling of stability in his reign. He used to appoint the child-Sultan to the throne on the terrace of Hazar-Situn and address commanders and ministers in Alauddin’s style. He had no idea that his every step wasbeing monitored by those whose destruction he was plotting.

When Kafur attempted to blind Qutubuddin Mubarak Khan, the situation deteriorated.

After Kafur’s death, his released by Alauddin’s former bodyguards (parks), who disapproved of Kafur’s conduct. According to a 16th-century historian, Firishta, Kafur dispatched some paiks to blind Mubarak Shah, but the imprisoned prince presented them with his glittering necklace and persuaded them to murder Kafur instead.

This, however, is a later fabrication: according to the older chronicler Ziauddin Barani, the parks killed Kafur on their own.

Mubashar, Bashir, Saleh, and Munir were four pairs who went to Kafur’s quarters and killed him just 35 days after his seizure of power.

Qutbuddin Mubarak Shah’s Rise to Power

Following Kafur’s assassination, the nobility gave Mubarak Shah the position of regent (naib-i mulk). Mubarak Shah, on the other hand, felt that as regent, his life would be in continuous danger. Initially, he declined the offer and instead sought permission to leave with his mother to another nation. The nobility convinced him, however, to accept the regency.

Mubarak Shah is therefore appoint regent of Shihabuddin, his younger stepbrother. Mubarak Shansubsequently accused Shihabuddin’s mother Jhatyapalli of attempting to poison him a few weeks later.

Shah quickly gained the support of the nobility, and two months after assuming the regency, Subsequently, he imprisoned Shihabuddin in Gwalior, and shortly thereafter, he blinded his brother and seized control. He executed the four pairs who had murdered Malik Naib and had grown haughty as a result.

Qutbuddin Mubarak Shah Ascension

Qutubuddin Mubarak Shah Khilji is suppose to have ascended the throne on 14th April 1316, when he is 18 years old. The new Sultan elevated his favorites and slaves to high posts and bestowed upon them large jagirs. Mubarak Shah maintained Alauddin’s officers and governors, which guaranteed the stability of the administration throughout Mubarak Shah’s first year in power.

However, the most remarkable increase occurred in the case of Hassan, an obscure slave from Gujarat.

Khusrau Khan is bestowing upon him. Malik Naib’s emoluments and it is bestowed upon him. He is prompt to the rank of Wazir after a few months. He also made the following appointments:

• Muhammad Maulana, Mubarak Shah’s maternal uncle, his granted the title, Sher Khan.

• Malik Dinar, who served as Alauddin’s shuhna-i pil (Keeper of the Elephants), bestowed the title of Zafar Khan. Mubarak Shah later married his daughter.

• Maulana Ziauddin, the son of Maulana Bahauddin, the Sultan’s calligraphy instructor, granted the title Qazi Khan and the post of Sadr-i Jahan. He is also gifted with a gold knife encrusted with diamonds.

• Malik Qara Beg, a prominent official in Alauddin’s administration, is grantee about 14 posts. His sons are likewise appointed to positions of prominence.

• Malik Fakhruddin Juna, Tughluq’s (Ghazi Malik’s) son, was appointed Amir Akhur (Master of Horse).

•His Hasan granted the title Khusrau Khan and Malik Kafur’s fief. He then elevated to wazir during Mubarak Shah’s first regnal year.

• The paiks who assassinated Malik Kafur claimed responsibility for establishing Mubarak Shah’s reign and sought prominent posts in his court. Mubarak Khan, on the other hand, had them beheaded.

Figure 2: Mubarak Shah’s Rounded Coin Image Retrieved From Wikipedia (By Mohammed Tariq – Own work, CC BY-SA 4.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=39664080)

Qutbuddin Mubarak Shah Hypocrisy

Mubarak Shah ascribed his ascension to power to divine providence. He once inquired of his courtiers if any of them anticipated his becoming king. When they responded negatively, he claimed that Allah had appointed him king and that only Allah had the authority to remove him from that position. On his coinage, he used the title Khalifatullah (“Representative of God”).

However, he enjoyed his rule in violation of Allah’s commands. His had been a lifestyle that is diametrical to Islam. He committed atrocities, he ascended to power illegally, he is directly responsible for the dynasty’s demise, and to top it all off, he was bisexual and engaged in homosexuality.

Since a result, this speech and his acceptance of the title of khalifatullah were just a show in front of the crowd, as his actions indicated otherwise.

However, not all of his policies were terrible, and he was a nice guy, as the next section will explain.

Policies and Notable Events under his rule

With time, a stable government headed by Qutubudddin Mubarak Shah Khilji quelled the chaos that followed Alauddin’s demise. While the new Sultan was naturally easygoing and generous, his imprisonment and early privations hardened him.

He freed between 17,000 and 18,000 of his captives on the day of his ascension. Men who were condemned and banish for a variety of crimes were freed. Soldiers were compensating for unpaid wages. Alauddin Khilji surrendered a significant number of jagirs he had recovered for Khalisa.

The Sultan an order that the suppliants’ petitions be personally delivering. He personally convinced petitioners and issued an order

To put it another way, Qutubuddin Mubarak Shah Khilji ushered in a new age. The majority of Alauddin Khilji’s rules fell into disuse. Market rules cease to enforce, and rigorous monitoring of the public’s behavior stopped. The continuous dread of spies, the difficulty of gaining favors or compassion, and the fear of barbaric punishment had departed from the populace’s thoughts.

Grain and clothing prices skyrocketed, and merchants staged processions to celebrate Alauddin Khilji’s demise. Bribery and corruption is freely practices, and it is a banner day for government officials, while worker salaries quadruple

To summarise, the Sultan’s compassion and his own easy habits made the people happy, and their dread of the days of Alauddin Khilji started to fade.

During Alauddin’s reign and Mubarak shah

Additionally, he made the following changes:

• During Alauddin’s reign, a lot of private properties is merged into the royal realm (khalifa). Mubarak Shah restored private ownership to these territories.

• Mubarak Shah banned heavy penalties and levies and barred the revenue ministry from enforcing tax collection via harsh methods like whipping and jail.

• Reduced land taxes benefited both landowners and peasants. Ziauddin Barani, an orthodox Muslim, bemoan the fact that the Hindus (agriculturalists) who are drive to poverty under Alauddin’s rule now don beautiful clothing and rode horses.

• He also repealed Alauddin’s pricing controls, resulting in a rise in inflation.

• Grain and commodity prices increased significantly. According to Barani, the Multani merchants celebrated Alauddin’s death and have since openly engaged in profiteering.

• The price of attractive slave females, eunuchs, and young boys increased to 500 tankas, and sometimes to 2,000 tankas. Apart from inflation, the strong demand for sensual pleasures contributes to this price increase: the new Sultan, like the general populace, is enamor of sensual pleasures.

• Wages rose fourfold on average. Annual wages for servants rose from ten to twelve tankas to as much as one hundred tankas.

•Qutbuddin Mubarak Shah compensated army troops with six months’ pay and raised commanders’ salaries and stipends.

• Additionally, Qutbuddin Mubarak Shahraised donations to Sayyids and ulama.

• Qutbuddin Mubarak Shah maintained Alauddin’s ban on intoxicants, but with lax enforcement, allowing whiskey into the city.

Military Career

Gujrat’s Repression of Rebellion

The murder of Alp Khan enraged the Gujarati populace, inspiring revolt. This was accomplished as a result of Malik Kafur’s plot. The Gujarat garrison had murdered their leader Kamaluddin Gurg and refused to acknowledge the imperial authority under Haidar and Wazirak. Kafur sent the governor of Devagiri, Ayn al-Mulk Multani, to put down the revolt. Multani got word of Kafur’s death during his march to Gujarat, near Chittor. His commanders then agreed to call a halt to the march until fresh instructions from Delhi arrived.

Qutubuddin Mubarak Shah Khilji invaded Gujarat in 1316 by sending a strong army under Malik Tughlaq to join the troops of Ain-ul-Mulk Mutani at Chittor. Alin-ul-Mulk was not only a capable commander; he was also an accomplished diplomat. He secretly sent messages to the insurgent army’s inferior commanders pleading with them to assassinate their leaders and surrender to the Sultan.

Diplomacy worked, and a large number of rebels sided with imperialists. Haidar and Wazirak evaded capture. They are constantly following, but they managed to flee and seek refuge with Hindu leaders.

Ain-ul-Mulk Multani and Malik Diner Zafar

Ain-ul-Mulk Multani returns to Delhi after conquering Gujarat, and Malik Dinar Zafar Khan is nameds governor. Gujarat brougt under full control as a result of this capable man’s genuine efforts.

Gujarat, on the other hand,is not destine for a lengthy period of calm. While on a battle in the Deccan, a conspiracy against the Sultan’s life shocked him to his core, and he became ruthless and reckless. He publicly assassinated Zafar Khan. He then appointed Hishammuddin, a brother of Khusrau Khan, as governor of Gujarat.

The sheer fact that Sultan saw him favorably changed his mind, and he started hatching wicked schemes. He gathered his closest allies and hoisted the insurrection standard. However, he is apprehended and transported to Delhi several strong Gujarati lords. Rather than punishing him, Qutubuddin Mubarak Shah Khilji praised him in court.

Vahiduddin Qureshi is appointed the governor of Gujarat. He came to Gujarat and, according to his administrative abilities, brought order to the turmoil caused by Hishamuddin’s mechanization. Qutubuddin Mubarak Shah Khilji is please by his abilities and bestowed upon Vahiduddin the title of Taj-ul-Mulk after the defeat of Malik Yaklakhi’s rebellion.

Devagiri Campaign

Devagiri was annexed by the Sultanate shortly after Malik Naib’s death. Harpal Deva, Ram Deva’s son-in-law, started to project an air of independence. In 1318, Qutubuddin Mubarak Shah Khilji marched with a strong army into Deccan. He had planned to capture Devagiri first and then collect the tribute from the Raja of Telangana.

Despite the fact that an emergency necessitated the appointment of a capable and experienced leader, Sultan Qutubuddin Mubarak Shah Khilji bestowed the title of Wafa Malik on Shahin, the Sultan’s father-in-law, and named him governor of Delhi.

Numerous expeditions is conducted to Devagiri before, and the route to the south is well-known. The first stop occurred at Tilput, and the imperial troops were on the borders of Devagiri after a few months.

Harpal Deva and his minister Raghava escaped to the hills with the approach of the imperial troops. Khusrau Khan ascertained the size of Raghava’s Maratha army and defeated them entirely, although Raghava avoided arrest. Harpal Deva is stabbes and kidnapped. He is flay alive and his corpse is hanged on Devagiri’s gates.

Siege of Warangal

The Kakatiya kingdom, having its capital at Warangal, was another kingdom subject to Alauddin. However, Prataparudra, the Kakatiya monarch, had ceased paying tribute to Delhi. As a result, Mubarak Shah sent an army to subdue him. Khusrau Khan, Khwaja Haji, and Malik Qutlugh commanded the army.

The Delhi army besieged the Kakatiya city Warangal, and Prataparudra chose to seek a ceasefire after putting up a considerable fight. He gave a vast sum of money to the invaders and promised to pay monthly tribute.


A plan was devised to assassinate Sultan. Asauddin, a cousin of Alauddin and the son of Malik Khamosh, was the primary perpetrator in this plot. The aim was to kill Sultan as he approached the Sakun valley and to install Asauddin on the throne.

The scheme is foil. All conspirators apprehend and promptly killed. Malik Khamosh’s riches and emoluments are seiz, and women and small daughters are hand over to the state for survival.

Qutubuddin Mubarak Shah Khilji then sent Shadi Khatta to Gwalior in order to kill Khizr Khan and other imprisoned princes. He afterward directed the assassination of Zafar Khan and Wafa Malik Shahin.

The finding of coins struck in 718 H in the name of Shamsuddin Mahmud Shah demonstrates the gravity of the plot to kill Sultan. Not only Aasauddin is engage, but also the citizens of Delhi.


The Assassination of Khizr Khan

Shadi Khatta is task Sultan with assassinating Khizr Khan, Shadi Khan, and Shihabuddin, Alauddin Khilji’s three sons. These princes is already blinded and were given just the barest necessities. According to Amir Khusrau, Sultan Qutubuddin Mubarak Shah Khilji sent a letter to Khizr Khan that began with a compassionate introduction but ended with an absurd plea to take his slave Deval Rani.

The demand infuriated the powerless prince. He argued that having lost everything but his lover, the Sultan owed him at least Deval Rani. He says that he rather dies than separated.

Amir Khusrau and Ibn Batuta provide vivid details of the prince’s execution. Khizr Khan and Shadi Khan slain. The decease is burying in a tower of the fort known as Vijaya Mandir, much as diamonds are conceal in the stones.

Private Life

Mubarak Shah identified as bisexual. His harem was enormous, and many of the ladies joined him on his expeditions. Following the assassination of his brother Khizr Khan, he adopted the latter’s wife Deval into his harem. According to 16th-century historian Firishta, Mubarak Shah used to parade nude prostitutes on the terraces of his palaces and force them to urinate on the nobility who entered his court.

Mubarak Shah also had homosexual encounters with Hasan (after Khusrau Khan) and Husamuddin, two uterine brothers. According to Amir Khusrau’s Tughluq Nama, the two brothers were members of the Hindu Baradu warrior caste. They are seized during Ayn al-Mulk Multani’s invasion of Malwa in 1305. The two brothers pretended to be homosexuals in order to preserve their rank and position.

Mubarak Shah favored Hasan as a partner but often relied on Husamuddin when Hasan was unavailable. Their love is not hidden, and Mubarak and Hasan often exchanged public embraces and kisses.

Mubarak bestowed to Hasan the title Khusrau Khan, numerous data, Malik Kafur’s army, and the wizarat. According to Barani, Mubarak grew “so smitten with Hasan… that he is not want to separate from him for a minute.” According to Barani, Hasan hated “the way the Sultan imposed himself and used him” and privately plotted vengeance against him.

Mubarak’s other subordinates informed him about Khusrau’s devious schemes, but while the Sultan was being sodomized, Khusrau persuaded him that the accusers are fabricating evidence against him. Mubarak is eventually assassinating Khusrau Khan’s henchmen.


The atrocities meted out to Malik Tamar and Talbagha, as well as Khusrau Khan’s ascension, had persuaded many self-centered nobles to join with him. Bahauddin Dabir, who had been forced to transfer his wife to the imperial harem, sought the shelter of Khusrau Khan and joined him.

Khusrau Khan’s family and acquaintances started to come to the city in huge numbers. Khusrau Khan, according to Ferishta, was able to marshal an army of 40,000 Barvaris. The Sultan’s assassination at Hazar-Situn palace was determined.

Qutubuddin gave up the keys to the palace to Khusrau Khan’s soldiers, allowing them to enter at their leisure. Khusrau Khan eventually succeeded in gaining nighttime access for his troops to the palace.

Each night, when it was calm, about three hundred well-armed Barvaris entered the palace and wandered about. However, Qazi Ziauddin, the Wakil-i-Dar, could not stand the prospect of such a condition of things continuing unchecked. One day, he freely informed the Sultan of what was happening in the palace, including the fact that his life was at risk and he was oblivious.

The Sultan lost his anger and reprimanded the Qazi in impolite language. Khusrau Khan immediately started shedding crocodile tears. Later that night, when the late guards made their rounds and the palace was almost deserted, Randhol, a relative of Khusrau Khan, entered the palace with a few Barvaris. Jahariya, another Barvari, murdered the Qazi with an arrow.

Qutubuddin Mubarak Shah Khilji made an unsuccessful attempt to flee into his harem. Khusrau Khan snatched the Sultan’s hair. Jahariya severed Qutubuddin Mubarak Shah Khilji’s head and tossed it into the courtyard. Mubarak Shah was murdered during the night of 26 April 1320, according to the author of Tarikh-i-Mubarakshahi.

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