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Zahiruddin Babar

Zahiruddin Babar is the founder of the Mughal Dynasty. The Mughal Dynasty was the largest dynasty India has ever seen. Zahiruddin Babar was considered one of the finest rulers in India had. He strived very hard and succeeded to secure the dynasty’s position in Delhi.

Early life of Zahiruddin Babar

His real name was Zahiruddin Muhammad Babar. The word Babar is a Persian word that means ‘Tiger’. Zahiruddin Babar was born on February 15, 1486. Babar was the eldest son of Umar Sheikh Mirza who was the fifth descendant of Timur, and he belonged to Genghis Khan from the maternal side. Zahiruddin Babar belonged of Mongol origin and Babar drew most of his support from Turks.

Accession and Reign

Zahiruddin Babar ascended the throne of Fergana from his father in 1495 when Babar was only 12 years old. Ameer’s started planning to remove him but the young King set out to expand his holdings. Babar conquered the Oasis city Silk Road of Samarkand in 1497. 

Zahiruddin Babar conquered Kabul in 1504. Babar lost control of the Samarkand as his uncles started a rebellion against him. However, Zahiruddin Babar won Samarkand again in 1501 and possession of both cities but Babar got defeat the Uzbek ruler and then Babur lost his rule in Samarkand. 

Delhi Empire

Babar made his way to Punjab in 1519 which was under the foothold of Sultan Ibrahim Lodi at that time. In 1524, the governor of Punjab Dawlat Khan Lodi resented Ibrahim Lodi’s reign and wanted to diminish Ibrahim’s authority. He Invited Zahiruddin Babar to take over the throne and in 1524, Babar invaded Punjab 3 times but was unable to master the tangled politics of Punjab and Delhi. The Delhi sultanate at that time was facing intense quarreling. Babar ask to make another try and on the 5th effort, Zahiruddin Babar raids the Delhi sultanate and got success. 

Advantage and attack

In 1526, Zahiruddin Babar met Ibrahim Lodi at Panipat, with an estimate of 18000 men whereas Ibrahim had more than 100,000 men and 300 war elephants. Babur used a strategy and waited 8 days for Ibrahim Lodi and used Turko-Mongol bows which Ibrahim Lodi had no idea of the advanced weapons. This was in fact one of the first battles to use gun powder firearms and field artillery

Babur dug a trench covered with trees to secure his left sides, placed 700 carts tied together, and ensured enough space for his soldiers to fire the guns. When Ibrahim Lodi arrived, he found the way to be too narrow for his troops to cross. While Ibrahim was redeploying his army, Babur took advantage and attacked. Babar occupied Delhi after 3 days and reached Agra. 

Babar 3rd great victory

Babar’s small force surround foes. In Rajasthan, Rana Sanga a powerful confederacy was a threat to Muslims. Babar’s men surround heat and hostile situations were wish to return home 800 miles. Babar diverted his army and dealt with Rana Sanga. Rana Sanga ascended with 100,000 men and 500 elephants. Using his customary tactics, Babar used the same techniques as he used to fight with Ibrahim Lodi and won.

After defeating Rana Sanga, Babar went to Lucknow, crossing the Ganges, he turned on to Mahmud Lodi and won his 3rd great victory. 

Establishment of Mughal Empire

 After the battle with Rana Sanga of Mewar, Babar repented all the sins he had done in the past, broke the wine vessels, abjuring liquor. The battle was one of the biggest successes as it sealed North India’s future for more than 2 centuries. After the battle, Agra become the center of the Mughal power, and the foundation of the Mughal Empire lay.

Babar began to structure the territory and foundations of this new empire and made Agra his capital and nominated Humayun as his successor.

Zahiruddin Babar Death

Babar’s son Humayun fell sick, and there was no chance of his recovery and it was declared that there was no possibility for Humayun to survive. In 1530, it is said that Babar walked around Humayun’s bed 7 times and prayed to God to transfer the illness from his son to him. From that time, Humayun began to recover, and Babar went to bad and eventually breathed his last. On 26 December 1530, Babar died at the age of 47. 


Babar lived a difficult life facing battles upon battles, but he planted the seed for one of the world’s biggest empires. Babar loved gardens and poetry. He was a genius with an engaging personality. To date, Babar is considered a hero in Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan. Babar also wrote his biography named “Babarnama”. He is buried in Kabul.

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